Movimentos e contramovimentos sociais: o caráter relacional da conflitualidade social / Social movements and countermovements: The relational character of social conflict

Marcelo Kunrath Silva, Matheus Mazzilli Pereira

Resumo


O campo de estudos de movimentos sociais tem-se caracterizado pela adoção de uma perspectiva analítica movimentocêntrica, que concentra seu foco de análise em características e processos internos aos movimentos sociais e suas organizações, bem como tem privilegiado como objetos de investigação os atores coletivos progressistas ou dominados, secundarizando a análise da mobilização coletiva de setores conservadores ou dominantes da sociedade. Desenvolvido no âmbito de perspectivas relacionais de análise dos movimentos sociais, o conceito de “contramovimentos” oferece ferramentas para superar essas lacunas, ao propor um deslocamento do foco analítico para as relações de conflito entre organizações de movimentos sociais de perfis ideológicos ou de segmentos da população distintos. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar esse conceito a partir de uma revisão da literatura a respeito: a) de sua apropriação pela literatura nacional e internacional; b) dos debates teóricos em torno de sua definição e explicação; c) e das principais temáticas que têm sido investigadas empiricamente a partir desse conceito.

Abstract

The literature on social movements has tended to adopt a “movement-centric” perspective, which concentrates its analytical focus on the internal characteristics and processes of social movements and their organizations. It has also tended to define as its objects of study the progressive or subaltern collective actors, neglecting the mobilization of dominant or conservative social groups. Developed under relational approaches to social movements, the concept of “countermovements” offers tools to overcome those gaps by moving the analytical focus to the contentious relations between social movement organizations of different ideological orientations or from different social groups. This paper seeks to present this concept by reviewing the literature regarding: a) its appropriation by the national and international literature; b) the theoretical debate over its definition and explanation; and c) the main topics of empirical investigation related to this concept.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20336/rbs.647

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